Micro to macro roughness of additively manufactured titanium implants in terms of coagulation and contact activation

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Research Areas
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Publication Details
Author list: Klingvall Ek, Rebecca
Publication year: 2017
Start page: 565
End page: 574
Number of pages: 10
ISSN: 0882-2786



This study aims to evaluate how as-built Electron Beam Melting (EBM) surface properties affect the onset of blood coagulation. The properties of EBM manufactured implant surfaces for implantation have, until now, remained largely unexplored in literature. Implants with conventional designs and custom-made implants have been manufactured using EBM technology, and later implanted into the human body. Many of the conventional implants used today, such as dental implants, display modified surfaces to optimise bone ingrowth, whereas custom-made implants, by and large, have machined surfaces. However, titanium in itself demonstrates good material properties for bone ingrowth purpose.

Materials and methods

Specimens manufactured using EBM were selected according to their surface roughness and process parameters. EBM-produced specimens, conventional machined titanium surfaces, as well as PVC surfaces for control were evaluated using the slide chamber model.


A significant increase in activation was found, in all factors evaluated, between the machined samples and EBM-manufactured samples.

The results show that EBM manufactured implants with as-built surfaces augment the thrombogenic properties.


EBM that uses Ti6Al4V powder appears to be a good manufacturing solution for load bearing implants with bone anchorage. The as-built surfaces can be used “as is” for direct bone contact, although any surface treatment available for conventional implants can be performed on EBM manufactured implants with conventional design.

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