Journal article
The relationship between levels of self-esteem, clinical variables, anxiety/depression and coping among patients with Musculoskeletal Pain

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Research Areas
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Publication Details
Author list: Soares, Joaquim
Publication year: 2000
Start page: 87
End page: 95
Number of pages: 9
ISSN: 1103-8128


The aim of this investigation was to examine the associations between self-esteem (SE), anxiety/depression (i.e. GHQ), pain variables (e.g. complexity), perceived disability, and coping styles, in 651 patients (mean age 45 years, 72% females) seeking care from general practitioners or physiotherapists for musculoskeletal pain. The study design was cross-sectional and data were collected by means of questionnaires during 15 consecutive days. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that SE was lower among female patients, independently of possible confounders. Furthermore, SE was negatively associated with anxiety/depression, and positively associated with pain intensity and active coping. The relationship between SE and pain intensity seems to be influenced by levels of emotional distress. It was concluded that SE is related to female gender, anxiety/depression, pain intensity and active coping style in patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

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