Journal article

Modeling and Characterization of Series Connected Hybrid Transformers for Low-Profile Power Converters


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Publication Details

Author list: Bakar, Muhammad Abu

Publisher: IEEE

Publication year: 2020

Start page: 53293

End page: 53306

Number of pages: 14


View additional information: View in Web of Science


Compact and low profile power converters are the main business of todays power industry. A significant volume of a power converter is occupied by the power transformer. This article proposes a unique solution that would make the power converters low profile. Instead of designing a power converter by using a single bulky transformer, the solution proposed is to split the main bulky transformer into a number of low profile transformers. This not only reduces the total weight and volume of the converter but also the total transformer losses. The use of more than one transformer in series reduces the applied voltage on the transformers, which minimizes the required turns ratio and decreases the stress on the secondary rectifiers and filter elements. Moreover, the decrease in the applied voltage reduces the proportional loss per transformer and makes it possible to design a hybrid transformer by combining Litz wire and traces of a printed circuit board. The reduced copper loss and lower heat dissipation per transformer simplify thermal management. An analytical comparison is made between the utilization of a single transformer or a number of transformers. The procedure of splitting a volume of a single transformer into a number of small transformers has been comprehensively discussed. The idea is investigated both experimentally and in computer simulation for an example application of a phase shifted full bridge dc-dc converter. The converter is characterized up to a load power of 2.2 kW at Vin = 400 Vdc and Vout = 48 Vdc. To make the approach more practical, the transformers are modeled using the traditional analytical method. The design of the example application using the split transformer approach reduces the total transformer weight by 45%, compared to the traditional approachwith a single transformer. The converter also shows good performance with a maximum efficiency of 96%.


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