Journal article

A longitudinal study of the relationship between empowerment and burnout among registered and assistant nurses.


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Publication Details

Author list: Hochwälder, Jacek

Publication year: 2008

Start page: 343

End page: 352

Number of pages: 10

ISSN: 1051-9815

View additional information: View in Web of Science


The relation between empowerment and burnout was investigated using a two-wave and two-variable panel model. A questionnaire was completed on two occasions, one year apart, by 1,356 nurses. The paths in the model were estimated using regression analyses and the following results were obtained: (a) empowerment is a stable state; (b) higher levels of empowerment are related to lower levels of burnout, when empowerment and burnout are studied at the same point in time; (c) higher prior levels of empowerment can be associated with higher later levels of burnout, when empowerment and burnout are studied at different points in time; (d) for assistant nurses, but not for registered nurses, prior higher levels of burnout resulted in lower later levels of empowerment, indicating a reciprocal relation between the two concepts. The results imply that what is a protective factor from a cross-sectional perspective may be a risk factor from a longitudinal perspective.


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