Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for measuring the hydration status in young elite synchronized swimmers


No matching items found.

Research Areas

No matching items found.

Publication Details

Author list: Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara

Publication year: 2017

ISSN: 1932-6203

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178819

View additional information: View in Web of Science


Purpose The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables. Methods Forty-nine elite SS female swimmers of two age categories, comen (Co: 13.9 ± 0.9 years, n = 34) and junior (Jr: 16.3 ± 0.6 years, n = 15), performed a long, high intensity training session. Body mass (BM) and bioelectrical variables (R, resistance; Xc, reactance; PA, phase angle; and Z, impedance module) were assessed pre-and post-Training. BIVA was used to characterize 1) the distribution pattern of the bioelectrical vector (BIA vector) for both age groups, and 2) pre-To post-Training BIA vector migration. Bioelectrical variables were also correlated with BM change values. Results Most swimmers were mostly located outside the 75% and some beyond the 95% percentile of the bioelectrical tolerance ellipses of the general population. The BIA vector showed statistically significant differences in both Co (T2= 134.7, p = 0.0001) and Jr (T2 = 126.2, p < 0.001). Both groups were also bioelectrically different (T2= 17.6, p < 0.001). After the training session, a decrease in BM (p = 0.0001) and an increase in BIA variables (p = 0.01) was observed. BIVA also showed a significant pre-post vector migration both in Co (T(T2 = 82.1; p < 0.001) and Jr (T2 = 41.8; p < 0.001). No correlations were observed between BM changes and bioelectrical variables. Conclusions BIVA showed specific bioelectrical characteristics in young elite SS athletes. Considering the decrease in BM and the migration of the BIA vector, we conclude that the homeostatic hydration status of these young elite female swimmers was affected by the execution of intense training sessions. From a methodological perspective, BIVA appears to be sensitive enough to detect subtle hydration changes, but further research is needed to ensure its validity and reliability. Moreover, these findings highlight the importance of ensuring adequate fluid intake during training in young SS athletes.


No matching items found.


No matching items found.


No matching items found.