Journal article
Addition of coarse woody debris - The early fungal succession on Picea abies logs in managed forests and reserves

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Author list: Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar
Publication year: 2011
Start page: 1100
End page: 1110
Number of pages: 11
ISSN: 0006-3207
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Abstract

Modern forestry practices have decreased the abundance of coarse woody debris (CWD), and as a result many species that depend on dead wood are now threatened. This implies a need to develop forestry practices that maintain biodiversity. We examined the conservation value of experimental spruce logs (control logs, logs placed in natural shade, and cut tree tops) for wood-inhabiting fungi in two forest stands, one nature reserve and one mature managed forest, in each of seven forest areas in northern Sweden. Here we report the initial findings of the experiment that was established in winter 2001-2002 and data were collected in 2002, 2003 and 2006. A pre-inventory of the local species composition in 2002 revealed a higher per area species richness, including red-listed species, in reserves than in managed forests. Ordination analyses of the experimental logs showed a significant effect of area, while not of stand type in 2003. ANOVA analysis showed no significant effect of stand type on species richness and abundance. In 2006, the species assemblage started to differentiate between the two stand types and forest age, forest site type (moisture), and distance to forest reserves, all explained part of the variation, whereas the amount of CWD, and species composition at the start of the experiment only showed a marginal effect. The early successional fungal community was dominated by two functional groups, humus-decayers and white-rot species, both characterized by a rapid, early colonization and fruit-body formation on the competition-free new substrate. A similar positive response to the new substrate was also observed for the mycorrhizal species in 2006. The high frequency and early appearance of humus-decayers and mycorrhizal species that do not primarily depend upon CWD for their nutrition suggest that their formation of fruiting bodies is limited by substrate availability. Thus some mycorrhizal fungi are apparently rare due to lack of suitable substrate for fruit-body formation. Evidence of dispersal-limitation was observed in 2006. Fomitopsis pinicola, an early colonizer in boreal forests, playing a key role for other wood-inhabiting organisms, colonized significantly more logs in the reserve stands compared with the managed stands. Our data demonstrate that lack of CWD strongly affects both species that depend upon wood for nutrition and species that depend upon wood for fruit-body formation. Thus some species may show an apparent rarity due to lack of suitable substrate. We conclude that creation of CWD appears to be a useful method to maintain or restore fungal diversity in boreal coniferous forests. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


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